Rawwater's innovative sealing technologies use bismuth-based alloys and offer a very real and cost-effective alternative to traditional well plugging techniques. Originally developed as front-line, high integrity metal-to-metal seals, they can also be despatched to the top of seeping cement plugs to reseal wells and restore integrity.
At our UK technology centre, we are designing and qualifying high integrity, large diameter offshore plugs and expanding metal seals to meet industry demands for plugging and abandonment, zonal isolation and well integrity management.
Our strength lies in our ability to develop alloy classes for specific temperature and service pressure conditions, as well as knowing precisely where bismuth alloys can be used – and where they cannot.
3,000 years and counting
We invented the Bismuth Plug and recently developed the world's first 3,000-year-life underwater cast metal seal. We have a large corrosion and creep database regarding the use of underwater cast bismuth alloys and have carried out more than 100 workshop trials using novel alloys specifically formulated for plugging and abandonment. We have successfully deployed bismuth alloy seals in onshore wells in Alberta, Canada, at 1000' depth and 1000psi pressure differential. A world-first in metal-to-metal plugging technology, the deployment resulted in the launch of a Joint Industry Project to develop offshore plugging and abandonment tools. This was supported by the UK Government and an international consortium of oil operators.
7" alloy plugs rated to 6000psi
To confirm offshore capability and extreme reliability, we completed a two-year programme to deliver 7" alloy plugs for deployment in the North Sea, rated to 6000psi differential pressure at 60cm (2') in length. Extensive development and testing took place in collaboration with an operator consortium and the UK Government to develop the formulation of the metal seals. The mechanical properties and creep behaviour of the alloy under service pressure/temperature conditions were verified through an OGIC-funded partnership with the University of Aberdeen.
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Operating envelopes to
The result of our research is a suite of alloys for onshore, offshore and subsea plugging and abandonment. Operating envelopes cover downhole geothermal temperature conditions from 158 - 194°F (70 - 90°C) and 284 - 320°F (140 - 160°C). Each alloy has been subjected to a strict technical qualification programme overseen by Bureau Veritas, with stringent adherence to the qualification processes stipulated by DNV-RP-203 - Jul 2013, ISO 14310 (V0) and Oil & Gas UK. The application includes both casing plugs and plugs/seals in undefined and/or rough walled geometries.